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Romania's biomass potential is very high.

Renewable fuels are a major answer to the problems of global warming and of dwindling fossil fuel reserves. They are not a complete solution by any means, but they are an excellent partial solution.

Biomass comes from a variety of sources such as tree plantations, forest residues, sawmill residues, perennial grasses, farm residues, etc., which are ground into small chips or fibers. This raw material is often used as fuel for electric and cogeneration power plants which are very efficient and essentially carbon neutral.

Biomass can be converted into pellets and briquettes for more efficient packaging, transport logistics, sales and consumption by end-users. Pellets and briquettes are compatible with many exisiting wood or coal powered heating & energy systems.

The demande for raw biomass, pellets and briquettes is constantly rising since the 1990's, forcing Europe to import millions of tonnes every year. This trend is predicted to continue at least for the next 20 years.

The optimum moment to invest in biomass production & conversion is NOW while costs of establishing and running projects are low and EU funds and Green Certificates are accessible.

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The principal solid bio-fuels are firewood, raw biomass, pellets and briquettes.

Perennial energy crops produce high volumes of biomass whic can easily be converted into energy.

Biomass from Perennial Crops

Biomass from perennial grass crops and farm residues can be chopped into fine chips which can be processed into pellets and briquettes, or placed in a digester to produce biogas. These crops can be grown every year, they replace petroleum based fuels and they sequester carbon. Planting, harvesting and processing technologies are now well established, allowing cost-effective implementation, exploitation, transformation and valuation.

Wood biomass is produced from forest and tree plantation cuttings.

Wood biomass

Wood biomass is primarily obtained from forest and tree plantation cuttings and residues. It is a carbon neutral renewable fuel which is harvested every year and can be transformed into chips, pellets, briquettes and of course firewood. Wood residues from sawmills and factories can also be used as biomass. Raw wood biomass in the form of "chips" is the most common fuel today for biomass power and cogeneration plants.

Pellets can be made from almost any type of biomass and have high calorific values.

Pellets

It take approximately 2 tonnes of wood biomass to produce 1 tonne of pellets, which have a very high calorific value. They are used to heat homes and collectivities, and to fuel some biomass power and cogeneration plants. In Europe, the demand is so high that millions of tonnes have to imported every year. Pellet factories are viable investment instruments with budgets starting as low as 200K.

Briquettes use the same raw biomass materials and follow the same farbication method and pellets, they are just much bigger.

Briquettes

Briquettes are essentially "huge pellets". They are made in a similar way and are used in the same ways as pellets. Briquettes can be used in many wood or coal burning stoves, fireplaces, furnaces and power plant burners. Forest and farm residues, and a variety of other raw materials can be pressed into Briquettes. 95% of Romania's rural population heat their homes with firewood. Due to demand, prices are quite high in most rural areas.

Firewood can be used in homes but also in biomass power plants.

Firewood

Firewood, a carbon neutral energy fuel used by man since the dawn of time, is just as sought after as it ever was. Firewood can be used to heat homes and collectivities, and to fuel power plants. It is produced from forests and tree plantation cuttings. Firewood can also be transformed into wood chips, pellets, and briquettes. A large segment of Romania's population uses wood to heat and cook. Briquettes are a good alternative for producers and end-users alike.

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